A physical neural network based on nanotechnology, including methods thereof. Such a physical neural network generally includes one or more neuron-like nodes, which are formed from a plurality of interconnected nano-connections formed from nano-conductors. Each neuron-like node sums one or more input signals and generates one or more output signals based on a threshold associated with the input signal. The physical neural network also includes a connection network formed from the interconnected nano-connections, such that the interconnected nano-connections used thereof by one or more of the neuron-like nodes are strengthened or weakened according to an application of an electric field.