A physical neural network based on nanotechnology, including methods thereof. Such a physical neural network generally includes one or more neuron-like nodes (1100), which can be formed from a plurality of interconnected nanoconnections (1104) formed from nanoconductors. Each neuron-like node (1100) sums one or more input signals and generates one or more output signals based on a threshold (1112) associated with the input signal. The physical neural network also includes a connection network formed from the interconnected nanoconnections (1104), such that the interconnected nanoconnections (1104) used thereof by one or more of the neuron-like nodes (1100) are strengthened or weakened according to an application of an electric field.